People search by specific keywords and phrases specific to a product or service. There can be a numerous keywords of phrases to find for example: "sneakers", can also be "tennis shoes", "athletic wear", or "basketball high tops" and many rendition thereof.
SEO is not a "one thing" it is a combination of implementations from content, url structure, page elements and strategies.
Many are trying to label "SEO" as a one thing which it is isn't. SEO (Search Engine Optimization) and goes along with SEM (Search Engine Marketing) is a combination of various methods, techniques and elements that "package" your website for search engine to index and rank it according to specific keywords and key phrases.
If you sell only "sneakers" on your website "fashiondepot.com" your target audience would be those that search for tennis shoes, athletic footwear, basketball shoes, and many renditions there of. Most will not know your online store domain name or even just that Fashion Depot is a sneaker website. Therefore, you have to implement various components that will communicate to the search engines that your website specializes in not just sports apparel but specifically "sneakers" only.
You may have 100's or 1000's of products and you want search engines to display your website and more specific the items your potential customer is looking for. There are two ways of making that happen and that is organic and paid
Organic search is when the search engine has properly indexed you and your website tops others in the way it ranks according to their search. -- A search engine's goals is to provide the most accurate search results to a user according to their search query. What it means if someone searches for "Sandals" a search engine would not want to display your website because you have nothing to do with "Sandals" even though they are shoes but that it displays without having to pay for play.
Paid searches are conducted via the likes of "Google Adwords" where you need to write ads and target specific keywords and allocate a budget which is used to bid on keywords to display your ads. It can be pretty complex as there are many different rules and best practices that you need to know in order not to waste your money. You can run through a budget fairly quickly and not get anything in return if you do not know what you are doing.
Below is an outline of our SEO process
Review your current website and state
After review we will provide a clear strategy
Execute the different components for implementation with your current website
Monitor your website's performance and make adjustments as needed.